Photo-acid generators (PAGs) are a vital component of many semiconductor photolithography formulations, especially chemically amplified resists (CARs). The outlook for fully removing PFAS-containing materials from PAGs industrywide is much more uncertain. To date, no replacement molecules (either commercially available or in a research phase) have been found that could match the performance of existing PFAS PAGs. Even if it is possible to develop non-PFAS PAGs for all applications, the impact and timeline from subsupplier to supplier to device manufacturer is extensive.
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